Zoonosis Underlying Cause
Facts about arbovirus infection:
The western equine encephalitis virus is an Arbovirus that occurs throughout the US. For an unknown reason, a high proportion of infections occur in children less than 1 year old. Eastern equine encephalitis occurs in the eastern US, mainly in young children and people over 55 years of age. Eastern equine encephalitis has a higher mortality rate than the western variety.
Flaviviruses are one type of arbovirus. The most well-known member of the group is the West Nile virus. West Nile was first reported in the US in 1999, where an outbreak resulted in several deaths. During the summer of 1999, 7 out of the 60 infected people died from this virus.
Hemorrhagic arboviruses include:
Orbiviruses are a type of arbovirus. There is one type of Orbivirus that causes disease in the US: Colorado tick fever.
Types of arboviruses and the insect that transmits the infection include:
|California Group Virus||Mosquito|
|Colorado Tick Fever||Tick|
|Congo Hemorrhagic Fever||Tick|
|Eastern Equine Encephalitis||Mosquito|
|Rift Valley Fever||Mosquito|
|St Louis Encephalitis||Mosquito|
|Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis||Mosquito|
|West Nile Virus||Mosquito|
|Western Equine Encephalitis||Mosquito|
Continue to Zoonosis Transmission
- Calisher CH. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116. 
- Drosten C, Gottig S, Schilling S, Asper M, Panning M, Schmitz H, Gunther S. Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jul;40(7):2323-30. 
- Dumpis U, Crook D, Oksi J. Tick-borne encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Apr;28(4):882-90. 
- Isturiz RE, Gubler DJ, Brea del Castillo J. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Latin America and the Caribbean. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Mar;14(1):121-40, ix. 
- Whitley RJ, Gnann JW. Viral encephalitis: familiar infections and emerging pathogens. Lancet. 2002 Feb 9;359(9305):507-13.