Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

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Withdrawal from Pain Medication Evaluation

The evaluation of narcotic withdrawal begins with a history and physical examination.

Physical findings in someone with narcotic withdrawal may include:

Tests that may be used to evaluate narcotic withdrawal include:

Less commonly performed tests that may be used to evaluate narcotic withdrawal include:

Continue to Withdrawal from Pain Medication Treatment

Last Updated: Dec 21, 2010 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Withdrawal from Pain Medication References
  1. Scott CS, Decker JL, Edwards ML, Freid EB. Withdrawal after narcotic therapy: a survey of neonatal and pediatric clinicians. Pharmacotherapy. 1998 Nov-Dec;18(6):1308-12. [9855332]
  2. Upthegrove RA, Naik PC. Pharmacological management of opiate withdrawal. Hosp Med. 2001 May;62(5):277, 280-1. [11385887]
  3. Wesson DR, Ling W. The Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS). J Psychoactive Drugs. 2003 Apr-Jun;35(2):253-9. [12924748]
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