Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

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VSD Symptoms

Symptoms of a ventricular septal defect in an infant may include:

Symptoms of a ventricular septal defect in an adult may include:

Symptoms of a worsening ventricular septal defect in an adult may include:

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Last Updated: Jan 7, 2011 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed VSD References
  1. Arora R, Trehan V, Thakur AK, Mehta V, Sengupta PP, Nigam M. Transcatheter closure of congenital muscular ventricular septal defect. J Interv Cardiol. 2004 Apr;17(2):109-15. [15104774]
  2. Demirag MK, Keceligil HT, Kolbakir F. Primary surgical repair of ventricular septal defect. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2003 Sep;11(3):213-6. [14514550]
  3. Lofland GK. Pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and multiple aorta pulmonary collateral arteries. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu. 2004;7:85-94. [15283357]
  4. Mukharji J, Sullivan L. Ventricular septal defect in the 9th decade. Mo Med. 2001 Sep;98(9):468-9. [11573315]
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