Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

Overview Incidence Symptoms Evaluation Treatment Prevention Outlook Underlying Cause Anatomy Genetics

Tay-Sachs Disease Anatomy

To better understand Tay-Sachs disease, it helps to understand the anatomy of the brain.

The brain is well protected by:

  • The scalp
  • The skull
  • The dura
    • A tough 3-layer sheath that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
    • Layers include the dura mater (strongest layer), arachnoid mater (middle layer), and pia mater (closest to the brain)

The brain is a complicated structure containing many parts. These include:
  • The cerebrum:
    • Made up of two cerebral hemispheres that are connected in the middle
    • It is the largest part of the brain
    • Each area of the cerebrum performs an important function, such as language or movement
    • Higher thought (cognition) comes from the frontal cortex (front portion of the cerebrum)
    • Outside of the cerebrum are blood vessels
    • There are fluid-filled cavities and channels inside the brain
  • The cerebellum:
    • Located in the lower, back part of the skull
    • Controls movement and coordination
  • The brainstem and pituitary gland:
    • Responsible for involuntary functions such as breathing, body temperature, and blood pressure regulation
    • Pituitary gland is the "master gland" that controls other endocrine glands in the body, such as the thyroid and adrenal glands
  • The cranial nerves:
    • Twelve large nerves exit the bottom of the brain to supply function to the senses such as hearing, vision, and taste
  • The cerebral blood vessels:
    • A complicated system that supplies oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain

The blood supply to the brain is divided into two main parts:
  • Anterior cerebral circulation:
    • The front of the brain is supplied by the paired carotid arteries in the neck.
  • Posterior cerebral circulation:
    • The back portion of the brain is supplied by the paired vertebral arteries in the spine.

Anatomy examples:
  • Carotid artery branches shown on arteriogram
  • Cerebral arteries viewed in cross-section through middle of brain
  • Cerebral arteries viewed from bottom of brain
  • Cerebral arteries on enhanced CT scan
  • Cerebral arteries on arteriogram

Continue to Tay-Sachs Disease Genetics

Last Updated: Jan 5, 2011 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Tay-Sachs Disease References
  1. Gason AA, Sheffield E, Bankier A, Aitken MA, Metcalfe S, Barlow Stewart K, Delatycki MB. Evaluation of a Tay-Sachs disease screening program. Clin Genet. 2003 May;63(5):386-92. [12752571]
  2. Kaplan F. Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: a model for prevention of genetic disease. Genet Test. 1998;2(4):271-92. [10464605]
  3. Mugikura S, Takahashi S, Higano S, Kurihara N, Kon K, Sakamoto K. MR findings in Tay-Sachs disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1996 Jul-Aug;20(4):551-5. [8708054]
  4. Sutton VR. Tay-Sachs disease screening and counseling families at risk for metabolic disease. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2002 Jun;29(2):287-96. [12108829]
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