Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

Sickle Cell Trait Symptoms

Symptoms of anemia in those with sickle cell anemia include:


Symptoms of worsening anemia in those with sickle cell anemia include:

Symptoms of a painful crisis in those who have sickle cell anemia include:

A person with sickle cell anemia who has symptoms of acute chest syndrome requires treatment immediately.

Symptoms of acute chest syndrome in those with sickle cell anemia include:

Abnormal Breathing Rates
AgeUpper NormalAbnormal
6mo - 1 year40 breaths per min60 breaths per min
1 - 3 years30 breaths per min50 breaths per min
4 - 5 years28 breaths per min45 breaths per min
5 - 6 years26 breaths per min40 breaths per min
6 - 12 years24 breaths per min30 breaths per min
Over 12 years20 breaths per min25+ breaths per min

Sickle Cell Trait Acute Chest Syndrome

A person with sickle cell anemia who has symptoms of acute chest syndrome requires treatment immediately.

Symptoms of acute chest syndrome in those with sickle cell anemia include:


Abnormal Breathing Rates
AgeUpper NormalAbnormal
6mo - 1 year40 breaths per min60 breaths per min
1 - 3 years30 breaths per min50 breaths per min
4 - 5 years28 breaths per min45 breaths per min
5 - 6 years26 breaths per min40 breaths per min
6 - 12 years24 breaths per min30 breaths per min
Over 12 years20 breaths per min25+ breaths per min

Sickle Cell Trait Triggers

Triggers of a painful crisis in those who have sickle cell anemia include:

Continue to Sickle Cell Trait Evaluation

Last Updated: Jan 24, 2011 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Sickle Cell Trait References
  1. Ander DS, Vallee PA. Diagnostic evaluation for infectious etiology of sickle cell pain crisis. Am J Emerg Med. 1997 May;15(3):290-2. [9148990]
  2. Fletcher C. Appraisal and coping with vaso-occlusive crisis in adolescents with sickle cell disease. Pediatr Nurs. 2000 May-Jun;26(3):319-24. [12026399]
  3. Johnson L. Managing acute and chronic pain in sickle cell disease. Nurs Times. 2005 Feb 22-28;101(8):40-3. [15754942]
  4. Miller JA, Hinrichs CR. Sickle cell crisis in the adult: chest radiographic findings and comparison with pediatric sickle cell disease. J Natl Med Assoc. 2001 Feb;93(2):58-63. [12653383]
  5. Silbergleit R, Jancis MO, McNamara RM. Management of sickle cell pain crisis in the emergency department at teaching hospitals. J Emerg Med. 1999 Jul-Aug;17(4):625-30. [10431951]
  6. Yale SH, Nagib N, Guthrie T. Approach to the vaso-occlusive crisis in adults with sickle cell disease. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Mar 1;61(5):1349-56, 1363-4. [10735342]
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