Punched in the Nose Anatomy
To better understand nose injury, it helps to understand the anatomy of the nose.
The structure of the upper one-third of the nose is bone, while the lower two-thirds are made of cartilage. The nasal septum is a thin layer of bone that separates one side of the nose from the other.
The inside surfaces of the nose are lined by a thin membrane. Many small blood vessels lie beneath the membrane.
Examples of anatomy include:
- Donat TL, Endress C, Mathog RH. Facial fracture classification according to skeletal support mechanisms. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998 Dec;124(12):1306-14. 
- Rhee SC, Kim YK, Cha JH, Kang SR, Park HS. Septal fracture in simple nasal bone fracture. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Jan;113(1):45-52. 
- Rohrich RJ, Adams WP Jr. Nasal fracture management: minimizing secondary nasal deformities. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000 Aug;106(2):266-73.