Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

Overview Symptoms Evaluation Treatment specialist Home Care nosebleed using a cane using crutches warning signs Underlying Cause

Prothrombin Deficiency Home Care

Home care for factor 2 deficiency includes:

  • Avoid aspirin.
  • Avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications:
  • Avoid herbal supplements.
  • Avoid vitamin E supplements.
  • Do not take additional medications without your doctor's consent.
  • Take prescribed medications as directed:
    • Don't skip doses of your medication. This makes them less effective.
    • Be aware of the common side effects that may be caused by your medication.
  • Apply direct pressure to control bleeding:
    • Use a gauze or clean cloth directly on the wound.
    • Maintain constant pressure for at least 10 minutes.
    • Do not interrupt the pressure, in order to look at the wound.

Home care for joint swelling and pain includes:
  • Rest the joint:
    • Use a walker.
    • Use crutches.
    • Use a cane.
    • Wear a sling
  • Apply an elastic wrap.
    • Re-wrap the joint every 6 hours.
  • Apply cold compresses:
    • Wrap ice in a moist hand towel. Do not apply ice directly to the skin.
    • Apply for 20-30 minutes, every 1-2 hours, for the first few days.
  • Acetaminophen for pain

How to stop a nosebleed:
  • Pinch the nose firmly for 15 minutes without letting go. Make sure you are pinching the nose below the nasal bone.
  • Sit upright: do not lie down.
  • Breathe through your mouth.
  • Drink cold water to clear blood from your throat.
  • Seek medical care if the bleeding does not stop.
  • Do not remove blood clots from your nose once the bleeding has stopped.
  • Do not blow your nose for at least 2 days.
  • Do not take aspirin for one week after the nosebleed.
  • Avoid hot liquids.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Avoid exposure to secondary smoke.

Prothrombin Deficiency Nosebleed

Home care for a nosebleed in someone with factor 2 deficiency includes:

  • Pinch the nose firmly for 15 minutes without letting go. Make sure you are pinching the nose below the nasal bone.
  • Sit upright: do not lie down.
  • Breathe through your mouth.
  • Drink cold water to clear blood from your throat.
  • Seek medical care if the bleeding does not stop.
  • Do not remove blood clots from your nose once the bleeding has stopped.
  • Do not blow your nose for at least 2 days.
  • Do not take aspirin for one week after the nosebleed.
  • Avoid hot liquids.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Avoid exposure to secondary smoke.

Prothrombin Deficiency Using a Cane

Some people with factor 2 deficiency and bleeding into a joint may benefit from using a cane.

Proper Cane Length
The handle of your cane should reach to the crease in your wrist when you stand upright and the end of the cane is resting on the floor.

Using a Cane
Hold the cane in the hand on the opposite side of the leg that needs support. With the cane, you can support some of your weight with your opposite arm. For example, if your left leg needs support, you should use the cane with your right arm. When you step with your left leg, the cane and your left leg should be on the ground at the same time, and you should support some of your weight with the right arm.

Follow these steps:

  • Position your cane one small stride ahead and step forward onto the bad leg. Place weight on your bad leg and the arm that is supported by the cane. Your elbow should be slightly bent as you support your weight.
  • Step forward with the good leg.

Climbing Stairs with a Cane
Climb one stair at a time and rest on one step before moving to the next step.

Follow these steps:
  • Grasp the handrail with the hand that is on the same side as the bad leg.
  • Place your weight on the bad leg and on the arm that is supported by the cane.
  • Step up to the next step with your good leg.
  • Transfer your weight to the good leg.
  • Move the cane and the bad leg to the step where you placed the good leg.
  • Support and stabilize yourself with your legs, the cane, and the handrail before moving to the next step.

Going down Stairs with a Cane
Go down one stair at a time and rest on one step before moving to the next step.

Follow these steps:
  • Grasp the handrail with the hand that is on the same side as the bad leg.
  • Place your weight on the good leg.
  • Place your bad leg and the cane on the step below.
  • Transfer your weight to the bad leg and the arm supported by the cane.
  • Move the stable leg to the step where you placed the cane and the bad leg.
  • Support and stabilize yourself with your legs, the cane, and the handrail before moving to the next step.

Prothrombin Deficiency Using Crutches

Some people with factor 2 deficiency and bleeding into a joint may benefit from using crutches.

Proper Adjustment for Crutches

  • The top of your crutch should be 1-1.5 inches below your armpit as you stand upright and the crutch rests on the floor.
  • The hand grips should be even with your hip joint.
  • Your elbows should bend as you use the hand grips.

Non Weight Bearing Technique
  • Stand on the good leg while using the crutches for balance.
  • Hold the bad leg off the floor.
  • Begin your step as if you are going to step on the bad leg, but do not place any weight on this leg. Instead, place both crutches in front of you and place your weight on your arms.
  • Your arms are supported by the crutches as you grip the crutch handles.
  • The crutches should be placed on the floor at an angle away from the side of your body, in a shape like the upright arms of the capital letter, "A."
  • Your elbows should bend as you support your weight.
  • Gently push off with your good leg after the crutches are firmly planted on the floor. Swing your body forward between the crutches.
  • Rest the top of the crutches tightly against each side of your chest and continue to support your weight with your arms.
  • Do not rest your armpits on the tops of the crutches. This can cause nerve damage.
  • Place your good leg on the floor and allow it to completely support your weight. Swing your crutches slightly away from your body and forward. Place the crutches on the floor to prepare for the next step.
  • Focus on where you are walking -- do not look at your feet.

Partial Weight Bearing Technique
  • Stand on the good leg while using the crutches for balance.
  • Begin to step on the bad leg, but do not place your entire weight on this leg. Instead, place most of your weight on your arms.
  • Your arms are supported by the crutches as you grip the crutch handles.
  • The crutches should be placed on the floor at an angle away from the side of your body, in a shape like the upright arms of the capital letter, "A."
  • Your elbows should bend as you support your weight.
  • Gently push off with your good leg after the crutches are firmly planted on the floor. Swing your bad leg forward between the crutches.
  • Rest the top of the crutches tightly against each side of your chest. Continue to support your weight with your arms and the bad leg.
  • Do not rest your armpits on the tops of the crutches.
  • Place your good leg on the floor and allow it to completely support your weight. Swing your crutches slightly away from your body and forward. Place the crutches on the floor to prepare for the next step.
  • Focus on where you are walking -- do not look at your feet.

Climbing Stairs with Crutches
When climbing stairs, you should climb one stair at a time, completely resting for a moment on one step before moving to the next step.

Follow these steps:
  • Start by supporting your weight with your good leg and both crutches.
  • Place your weight on both of the crutches and move your good leg up to the next step.
  • Transfer your weight to the good leg.
  • Lift the bad leg and the crutches onto the same step where you placed the good leg.
  • Support and stabilize yourself with both crutches and the good leg before moving to the next step.

Going down Stairs on Crutches
When going down stairs, you should go down one stair at a time. Stop and rest for a moment on one step before moving to the next step.

Follow these steps:
  • Start by supporting your weight with your good leg and both crutches.
  • Place your weight on the good leg and place both of the crutches onto the next lower step.
  • Transfer your weight to both crutches.
  • Place the good leg onto the same step where you placed the crutches.
  • Support and stabilize yourself with both crutches and the good leg before moving to the next step.

Prothrombin Deficiency Warning Signs

Notify your doctor if you have factor 2 deficiency and any of the following:

Continue to Prothrombin Deficiency Underlying Cause

Last Updated: Feb 23, 2011 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Prothrombin Deficiency References
  1. Girolami A, Scarano L, Saggiorato G, Girolami B, Bertomoro A, Marchiori A. Congenital deficiencies and abnormalities of prothrombin. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1998 Oct;9(7):557-69. [9863703]
  2. Muntean W. Fresh frozen plasma in the pediatric age group and in congenital coagulation factor deficiency. Thromb Res. 2002 Oct 31;107 Suppl 1:S29-32. [12379290]
  3. Peyvandi F, Mannucci PM. Rare coagulation disorders. Thromb Haemost. 1999 Oct;82(4):1207-14. [10544899]
  4. Williams S, Linardic C, Wilson O, Comp P, Gralnick HR. Acquired hypoprothrombinemia: effects of danazol treatment. Am J Hematol. 1996 Dec;53(4):272-6. [894867]
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