Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

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PMS Anatomy

To better understand premenstrual syndrome, it may help to understand the anatomy of the uterus, cervix, and Fallopian tubes, and how they are affected by menstruation.

The female reproductive organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. The lining of the uterus is called the endometrium.

The uterus is composed of smooth muscle. During the normal menstrual cycle, the uterus will undergo successive periods of contraction followed by relaxation. At times, the contractions are more pronounced, and can cause discomfort.

Anatomy of the female reproductive tract includes:

  • The uterus, cervix, and vaginal canal
  • The fallopian tubes: these paired structures connect each ovary to the uterus.
  • The ovaries: one on each side of the uterus. The normal ovary is approximately the size of an unshelled almond.

Last Updated: Nov 1, 2010 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed PMS References
  1. Johnson SR. Premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and beyond: a clinical primer for practitioners. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Oct;104(4):845-59. [15458909]
  2. Rapkin A. A review of treatment of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003 Aug;28 Suppl 3:39-53. [12892989]
  3. Wyatt K, Dimmock P, Jones P, Obhrai M, O'Brien S. Efficacy of progesterone and progestogens in management of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ. 2001 Oct 6;323(7316):776-80. [11588078]
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