Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

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Personality Disorder Narcissistic Underlying Cause

The cause of narcissistic personality disorder is unknown.

Last Updated: Jun 4, 2008 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Personality Disorder Narcissistic References
  1. Fernando J. The etiology of narcissistic personality disorder. Psychoanal Study Child. 1998;53:141-58. [9990828]
  2. Links PS, Gould B, Ratnayake R. Assessing suicidal youth with antisocial, borderline, or narcissistic personality disorder. Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Jun;48(5):301-10. [12866335]
  3. Ronningstam E. Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder in Axis I disorders. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 1996 Mar-Apr;3(6):326-40. [9384963]
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