Pain Medication Withdrawal Types
Psychological Narcotic Withdrawal
This is the perceived need for a substance that often causes extreme anxiety, nervousness, and irritability. Although the individual feels they need the drug, their body is not physically addicted to it.
Physical Narcotic Withdrawal
Physical withdrawal is often dramatic and serious. It can affect the cardiovascular system and the nervous system. This withdrawal may cause changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
Symptoms of physical narcotic withdrawal include:
- Scott CS, Decker JL, Edwards ML, Freid EB. Withdrawal after narcotic therapy: a survey of neonatal and pediatric clinicians. Pharmacotherapy. 1998 Nov-Dec;18(6):1308-12. 
- Upthegrove RA, Naik PC. Pharmacological management of opiate withdrawal. Hosp Med. 2001 May;62(5):277, 280-1. 
- Wesson DR, Ling W. The Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS). J Psychoactive Drugs. 2003 Apr-Jun;35(2):253-9.