Ovarian Cancer Evaluation
Tests are required to make the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
Tests that may be used to evaluate ovarian cancer include:
- Complete blood count
- BRCA1 testing
- CA 125 blood test
- HE4 blood test
- Carcinoembryonic antigen level
- Chorionic gonadotropin level
- Chest x-ray
- Pelvic ultrasound
- CT scanning of the abdomen and pelvis
- MRI scan of the abdomen
- MRI scan of the pelvis
- Bone scan
Procedures that may be performed to evaluate ovarian cancer include:
Ovarian Cancer Staging
In order to properly treat ovarian cancer, the type, size and extent of spread must be determined in a woman with ovarian cancer. Some of these important factors are listed below:
Staging Ovarian Cancer
Staging is mainly based on the extent of spread of the tumor. This gives a Stage 1-4 (I-IV) classification. This is often combined with a TNM system, for Tumor, Nodes and Metastases.
Cell type is a distinction that is made by the pathologist by viewing a sample of cancer tissue under a microscope. Ovarian cancer fall into one of three main tumor cell types:
- Epithelial cells (90%)
- Germ cells (3-4%)
- Stromal cells (6%)
Pathologists will grade tumors on the basis of how well or poorly organized they appear to be under a microscope. The higher-grade cancers tend to be poorly organized and do not resemble normal ovarian tissue.
Ovarian tumors are graded on a scale of 1, 2, or 3. Grade 1 tumors more closely resemble normal tissue and have a better overall prognosis than Grade 3 tumors, which tend to be very poorly organized.
In stage 1 (I), the cancer is confined to one or both ovaries.
In stage 2 (II), the cancer has spread outside the ovaries, but remains in the pelvis.
In stage 3 (III), the cancer has spread beyond the pelvis to the abdominal organs.
In stage 4 (IV), the cancer has spread to distant organs.
Continue to Ovarian Cancer Treatment
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