Overview Incidence Risk Factors Symptoms Evaluation Treatment calcium drugs bisphosphonates questions for doctor specialist Home Care diet taking control warning signs Prevention Outlook Complications Underlying Cause Anatomy
- Loss of height
- Curving of the spine
- Difficulty walking
Blood tests that may be used to evaluate osteoporosis include:
- Serum calcium level
- Vitamin D level
- Dexamethasone suppression test
- Electrolyte profile
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
- Kidney profile
- Thyroid profile
- Parathyroid hormone level
- Testosterone level in men
Bone density testing is required to make the diagnosis of osteoporosis.
Bone tests that may be used to evaluate osteoporosis include:
- Bone mineral density:
- DEXA x-ray test measures the spine or hip
- Ultrasound measurement in the calcaneus (heel bone)
- CT scan measurement in the spine or hip
- Bone x-rays
- Bone scan
Individuals who should have bone mineral density testing include:
- All women older than 65 regardless of risk factors.
- Post-menopausal women with at least one additional osteoporosis risk factor other than menopause.
- Post-menopausal women who have had a wrist fracture, spine fracture, or hip fracture.
- Women considering therapy for osteoporosis, if testing would affect the decision.
- Individuals with primary hyperparathyroidism.
- Individuals with abnormalities of the spine:
- Individuals receiving, or planning to receive, long-term glucocorticoids.
- Individuals being monitored to assess the response to an approved osteoporosis drug.
Continue to Osteoporosis Treatment
PubMed Osteoporosis References
- Elliot-Gibson V, Bogoch ER, Jamal SA, Beaton DE. Practice patterns in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis after a fragility fracture: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. 2004 Oct;15(10):767-78. [15258724 ]
- Geusens PP. Review of guidelines for testing and treatment of osteoporosis. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2003 Sep;1(2):59-65. 
- Lane NE, Kelman A. A review of anabolic therapies for osteoporosis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003;5(5):214-22. 
- Lin JT, Lane JM. Osteoporosis: a review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Aug;(425):126-34. 
- Moyad MA. Osteoporosis: a rapid review of risk factors and screening methods. Urol Oncol. 2003 Sep-Oct;21(5):375-9.