Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

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Nicotine Withdrawal Evaluation

The evaluation of nicotine withdrawal begins with a history and physical examination.

Physical findings in someone with nicotine withdrawal may include:

Tests are not necessary to make the diagnosis of nicotine withdrawal.

Continue to Nicotine Withdrawal Treatment

Last Updated: Dec 21, 2010 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Nicotine Withdrawal References
  1. Berrettini WH, Lerman CE. Pharmacotherapy and pharmacogenetics of nicotine dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Aug;162(8):1441-51. [16055765]
  2. Gonzales D, Rennard SI, Nides M, Oncken C, Azoulay S, Billing CB, Watsky EJ, Gong J, Williams KE, Reeves KR; Varenicline Phase 3 Study Group. Varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006 Jul 5;296(1):47-55. [16820546]
  3. Mooney ME, Sofuoglu M. Bupropion for the treatment of nicotine withdrawal and craving. Expert Rev Neurother. 2006 Jul;6(7):965-81. [16831112]
  4. Shiffman S, Fant RV, Buchhalter AR, Gitchell JG, Henningfield JE. Nicotine delivery systems. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2005 May;2(3):563-77. [16296775]
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