Nevus Vascular Underlying Cause
Birthmarks form when blood vessels overgrow under the skin surface or when the blood vessels are abnormally swollen under the skin surface. However, the underlying cause for birthmarks is unknown.
- Enjolras O, Mulliken JB: The current management of vascular birthmarks. Pediatr Dermatol 1993 Dec; 10(4): 311-3. 
- Geronemus RG, Ashinoff R: The medical necessity of evaluation and treatment of port-wine stains. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1991 Jan; 17(1): 76-9. 
- Goldman MP, Fitzpatrick RE, Ruiz-Esparza J: Treatment of port-wine stains (capillary malformation) with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser. J Pediatr 1993 Jan; 122(1): 71-7.