Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Self Monitoring
Self monitoring is important for those with type 1 diabetes.
Blood Testing for Glucose
- Monitor your blood glucose as directed by your doctor:
- Measure your blood sugar before meals and at bedtime every day and record the readings.
- Review your glucose readings to see if your level is too high or too low several days in a row at about the same time.
- Learn to use your glucose monitor correctly.
- Daily home glucose monitoring is essential.
- Try to keep your glucose level between 70-110 mg/dl before meals.
- Two hours after meals, your glucose level should be less than 140 mg/dl.
- Check your blood sugar before operating a motor vehicle.
- Raise your blood sugar level by eating, if it falls below 70 mg/dl.
- Carefully monitor your blood sugars when you are ill.
- Blood glucose increases when you are ill or have an infection.
Good times to measure your blood glucose:
- Before meals
- Before bedtime
- 1-2 hours after meals:
- Helps you to decide if you need to supplement with regular insulin (sliding scale)
- 2-3 A.M., at least one night per week:
- Helps detect nighttime low blood sugar
Additional reasons to measure your blood glucose:
- After you have lost or gained weight
- Before you drive a motor vehicle
- Before and after periods of heavy physical activity
- When you have had a change in your diet, insulin dose, or activity level
- When you are pregnant
- When you are ill or under stress
- When you suspect low blood sugar
- When you develop increased urination, excessive thirst, or blurry vision
- When you feel confused
Urine Testing for Ketones
- In the past, urine testing was very useful and important. With the availability of rapid blood sugar testing, urine testing is usually not necessary.
- The main reason to perform this test is to check for early ketoacidosis. Small or trace ketones may mean nothing or represent the beginning of ketoacidosis. If you find this result, then perform the ketone test again in several hours.
- Notify your physician immediately if you discover moderate to large ketones present in your urine.
Continue to Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Taking Control
- Davis RE, Morrissey M, Peters JR, Wittrup-Jensen K, Kennedy-Martin T, Currie CJ. Impact of hypoglycaemia on quality of life and productivity in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005 Sep;21(9):1477-83. 
- Larsson K, Elding-Larsson H, Cederwall E, Kockum K, Neiderud J, Sjoblad S, Lindberg B, Lernmark B, Cilio C, Ivarsson SA, Lernmark A. Genetic and perinatal factors as risk for childhood type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2004 Nov-Dec;20(6):429-37. 
- Mannucci E, Rotella F, Ricca V, Moretti S, Placidi GF, Rotella CM. Eating disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005 May;28(5):417-9. 
- Schlosser M, Strebelow M, Rjasanowski I, Kerner W, Wassmuth R, Ziegler M. Prevalence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in schoolchildren: the Karlsburg Type 1 Diabetes Risk Study. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1037:114-7. 
- Steck AK, Bugawan TL, Valdes AM, Emery LM, Blair A, Norris JM, Redondo MJ, Babu SR, Erlich HA, Eisenbarth GS, Rewers MJ. Association of non-HLA genes with type 1 diabetes autoimmunity. Diabetes. 2005 Aug;54(8):2482-6.