Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

Infected Bladder Evaluation

The evaluation of a bladder infection begins with a complete history and physical examination, including a pelvic exam in females.

Physical findings in those with a bladder infection may include:


Urine testing is usually necessary to confirm the diagnosis of a bladder infection. Usually, additional tests are not necessary.

Tests that may be used to evaluate a bladder infection include:

Less common tests that may be used to evaluate bladder infection include:

Infected Bladder Clean Catch Urine

Urine tests are used to evaluate bladder infections. Unfortunately, a urine sample can be contaminated by bacteria on the skin surface, where urine exits the urethra. A clean-catch urine sample reduces the chance that the sample is contaminated by bacteria from the outside of the bladder.

In males, a clean-catch urine procedure includes:

  • Retract the foreskin.
  • Cleanse the tip of the penis.
  • Begin urinating into the toilet.
  • Place the urine sample cup into the stream of urine.
  • Catch 1-3 ounces of urine in a cup.
  • Take the cup out of the urine stream.
  • Complete voiding in the toilet.
  • Close the sample cup.

In females, a clean-catch urine procedure includes:
  • Cleanse the urethra and vulva.
  • Begin urinating into the toilet.
  • Place the urine sample cup into the stream of urine.
  • Catch 1-3 ounces of urine in a cup.
  • Take the cup out of the urine stream.
  • Complete voiding in the toilet.
  • Close the sample cup.

Infected Bladder Similar Conditions

Conditions that can cause symptoms similar to a bladder infection include:

Continue to Infected Bladder Treatment

Last Updated: Dec 2, 2010 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
Copyright DSHI Systems, Inc. Powered by: FreeMD - Your Virtual Doctor

PubMed Infected Bladder References
  1. Engel JD, Schaeffer AJ: Evaluation of and antimicrobial therapy for recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Urol Clin North Am 1998 Nov; 25(4): 685-701. [10026775]
  2. Hooton TM, Scholes D, Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Roberts PL, Stamm WE. Amoxicillin-clavulanate vs ciprofloxacin for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in women: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2005 Feb 23;293(8):949-55. [15728165]
  3. Hooton TM, Scholes D, Hughes JP: A prospective study of risk factors for symptomatic urinary tract infection in young women. N Engl J Med 1996 Aug 15; 335(7): 468-74. [8672152]
  4. Malhotra SM, Kennedy WA. Urinary tract infections in children: treatment. Urol Clin North Am. 2004 Aug;31(3):527-34, x. [15313062]
  5. McCarty JM, Richard G, Huck W, et al: A randomized trial of short-course ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of acute urinary tract infection in women. Ciprofloxacin Urinary Tract Infection Group. Am J Med 1999 Mar; 106(3): 292-9. [10190377]
FreeMD is provided for information purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use.