Hyperparathyroidism Secondary Anatomy
To better understand secondary hyperparathyroidism, it helps to understand the anatomy of the parathyroid glands.
The four parathyroid glands are located in the neck, embedded inside of the thyroid gland.
The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone, which regulates the level of calcium in the bloodstream.
- Ahmad R, Hammond JM. Primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2004 Aug;37(4):701-13, vii-viii. 
- Brown AJ, Coyne DW. Vitamin D analogs: new therapeutic agents for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Treat Endocrinol. 2002;1(5):313-27. 
- de Francisco AL. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: review of the disease and its treatment. Clin Ther. 2004 Dec;26(12):1976-93. 
- Silver J, Levi R. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Nephrol. 2005 Feb;63(2):119-26.