Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

HIV Infection Prevention

Prevention of HIV infection includes:

  • Avoid anal intercourse.
  • Avoid intercourse with anyone who has oral or genital sores.
  • Avoid sexual contact with multiple partners.
  • Avoid contact with body fluids from someone who is infected with HIV.
  • Do not share personal items, such as razors or toothbrushes.
  • Do not use petroleum jelly in the vagina: this can trap viruses.
  • Intravenous drug users should never share needles with other drug users.
  • Practice safe sex:
    • Always use latex condoms.
    • The use of tenofovir vaginal gel can substantially reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
  • Pregnant women with HIV should not smoke.
    • Smoking can increase the risk of passing the virus to the unborn child.
  • If you have sex with someone who has HIV:
    • Seek medication attention, because you may benefit from medications that help prevent infection by HIV.
  • Women should not douche immediately after intercourse:
    • This weakens the vagina's natural barrier to infection.

Health care workers should take special precautions:
  • Blood and body fluid precautions:
    • Always wear gloves and a mask during medical procedures.
    • Always wear gloves if you are exposed to blood, semen, saliva or stool.

Continue to HIV Infection Outlook

Last Updated: Jun 6, 2011 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed HIV Infection References
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  4. McArthur JC, Brew BJ, Nath A. Neurological complications of HIV infection. Lancet Neurol. 2005 Sep;4(9):543-55. [16109361]
  5. Mylonakis E, Paliou M, Lally M, et al: Laboratory testing for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus: established and novel approaches. Am J Med 2000 Nov; 109(7): 568-76. [11063959]
  6. Paul SM, Sensakovic J, Podhurst LS, Morgan DH, Triano-Davis W. Managing HIV/AIDS patients. N J Med. 1998 May;95(5):55-60. [16013158]
  7. Treatment guidelines from the Medical Letter: Drugs for HIV Infection. Treat Guidel Med Lett 2004 Jan; 2(17): 1-8. [15529108]
  8. Varghese GK, Crane LR: Evaluation and treatment of HIV-related illnesses in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1994. Sep. (3): 503-11. [8080146]
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