To better understand hemorrhoids, it helps to understand the anatomy of the colon, rectum, and anus.
The large intestine is also known as the colon. It is the last portion of the intestine. The colon has several parts, including:
- Ascending colon: the first section after the small intestine, located on the right side
- Transverse colon: sits horizontally across the upper abdomen
- Descending colon: located on the left side of the abdomen
- Sigmoid: a short, S-shaped section above the rectum
- Rectum: the lowest internal part of the colon
The anus is the opening on the gastrointestinal tract, where the stool exits. The anus marks the transition from the lining of the gastrointestinal tract to the external skin. The anal canal is a tube, 1-2 inches long that leads to the anus. The anal canal is surrounded by circular muscles, called sphincters, and blood vessels. The sphincters control defecation.
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