Overview Incidence Risk Factors Symptoms trigger factors Evaluation Treatment drugs bronchodilators questions for doctor specialist Home Care inhaler use taking control warning signs wheezing Prevention stop smoking Outlook Complications Underlying Cause Anatomy
- Low blood oxygen levels
- Signs of severe difficulty breathing
- Rapid respiratory rate
The diagnosis of emphysema is usually confirmed through testing.
Tests that may be used to evaluate emphysema include:
Continue to Emphysema Treatment
PubMed Emphysema References
- Doherty DE, Briggs DD Jr. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: epidemiology, pathogenesis, disease course, and prognosis. Clin Cornerstone. 2004;Suppl 2:S5-16. 
- Ebell MH. Systemic corticosteroids for acute exacerbations of COPD. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Aug 1;72(3):437-8. 
- Kerstjens H, Postma D, Ten Hacken N. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Evid. 2004 Jun;(11):2003-30. 
- Weder MM, Donohue JF. Role of bronchodilators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Apr;26(2):221-34.