Embolism due to Air Prevention
Prevention of air embolism includes:
Embolism due to Air Cardiac Screening
Up to 1 out of every 4 people has a tiny heart defect called patent foramen ovale, which is an abnormal opening that allows blood to flow from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart. When this happens, some of the blood does not flow to the lungs. A patent foramen ovale increases the chance of stroke by ten times. Those who have a patent foramen ovale should not engage in scuba activities.
An echocardiogram is used to detect patent foramen ovale.
Continue to Embolism due to Air Underlying Cause
- Arness MK. Scuba decompression illness and diving fatalities in an overseas military community. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1997 Apr;68(4):325-33. 
- Freiberger JJ, Lyman SJ, Denoble PJ, Pieper CF, Vann RD.Consensus factors used by experts in the diagnosis of decompression illness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004 Dec;75(12):1023-8. 
- Germonpre P. Patent foramen ovale and diving. Cardiol Clin. 2005 Feb;23(1):97-104. 
- Hunt JC. Diving the wreck: risk and injury in sport scuba diving. Psychoanal Q. 1996 Jul;65(3):591-622. 
- Moon RE, de Lisle Dear G, Stolp BW. Treatment of decompression illness and latrogenic gas embolism. Respir Care Clin N Am. 1999 Mar;5(1):93-135. 
- Smerz RW. Age associated risks of recreational scuba diving. Hawaii Med J. 2006 May;65(5):140-1, 153. 
- Tetzlaff K, Shank ES, Muth CM. Evaluation and management of decompression illness--an intensivist's perspective. Intensive Care Med. 2003 Dec;29(12):2128-36. 
- Tetzlaff K, Thorsen E.Breathing at depth: physiologic and clinical aspects of diving while breathing compressed gas. Clin Chest Med. 2005 Sep;26(3):355-80, v.