Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

Cystitis Anatomy

To better understand bladder infection, it helps to understand the anatomy of the bladder and genitourinary tract.

Urine flows from the kidneys, through the ureters, and into the bladder. The bladder holds 10 to 20 ounces (300 to 600 ml) of urine. As the bladder fills, the bladder wall stretches. This sensation results in the urge to urinate. The act of urination causes the bladder to empty into the urethra. Urine flows through the urethra and exits the body.

Anatomy of the bladder:

  • Female bladder
  • Male bladder and prostate

Last Updated: Nov 3, 2008 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Cystitis References
  1. Engel JD, Schaeffer AJ: Evaluation of and antimicrobial therapy for recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Urol Clin North Am 1998 Nov; 25(4): 685-701. [10026775]
  2. Hooton TM, Scholes D, Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Roberts PL, Stamm WE. Amoxicillin-clavulanate vs ciprofloxacin for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in women: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2005 Feb 23;293(8):949-55. [15728165]
  3. Hooton TM, Scholes D, Hughes JP: A prospective study of risk factors for symptomatic urinary tract infection in young women. N Engl J Med 1996 Aug 15; 335(7): 468-74. [8672152]
  4. Malhotra SM, Kennedy WA. Urinary tract infections in children: treatment. Urol Clin North Am. 2004 Aug;31(3):527-34, x. [15313062]
  5. McCarty JM, Richard G, Huck W, et al: A randomized trial of short-course ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of acute urinary tract infection in women. Ciprofloxacin Urinary Tract Infection Group. Am J Med 1999 Mar; 106(3): 292-9. [10190377]
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