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- Clubbing of the fingers
- A broadening or thickening of the tips of the fingers that can be seen in some respiratory diseases as well as cancers.
- Enlargement of the spleen
Testing is necessary to make the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.
Tests that may be used to evaluate cystic fibrosis include:
- Sweat chloride test
- Metal electrodes on the skin measure the concentration of sodium and chloride in the sweat.
- Can usually detect CF
- Genetic testing for CF
- Other tests are used to determine the presence and severity of complications of CF such as:
- 72-hour fecal fat determination, and testing the stools for trypsin and chymotrypsin
- Blood testing will generally show decreased serum albumin
- Blood testing for vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K)
- Glucose tolerance testing
- Skeletal bone x-rays
- Sputum culture (testing for pseudomonas bacteria)
- Chest x-ray
- Pulmonary function testing
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PubMed CF References
- Aswani N, Taylor CJ, McGaw J, Pickering M, Rigby AS. Pubertal growth and development in cystic fibrosis: a retrospective review. Acta Paediatr. 2003 Sep;92(9):1029-32. 
- Long JM, Fauset-Jones J, Dixon MJ, Worthington-Riley D, Sharma V, Patel L, David TJ. Annual review hospital visits for patients with cystic fibrosis. J R Soc Med. 2001;94 Suppl 40:12-6. 
- Prescott WA Jr, Johnson CE. Antiinflammatory therapies for cystic fibrosis: past, present, and future. Pharmacotherapy. 2005 Apr;25(4):555-73. 
- Schoni MH, Casaulta-Aebischer C. Nutrition and lung function in cystic fibrosis patients: review. Clin Nutr. 2000 Apr;19(2):79-85.