Cancer of the Prostate Evaluation
- Lump on the prostate
- Prostate enlargement
Tests that may be used to evaluate prostate cancer include:
Cancer of the Prostate Biopsy
The diagnosis of prostate cancer is usually confirmed by performing a needle biopsy of the prostate gland. During a prostate biopsy, a needle is inserted through the rectum and advanced into the prostate gland. Ultrasound is used to guide the needle during the biopsy. A small tissue sample is collected, and then studied under a microscope to look for cancer cells. Usually, the biopsy is performed as an outpatient procedure, under local anesthesia.
Side effects of a prostate biopsy include:
- Pink urine:
- A small amount of blood enters the urine
- Rectal bleeding:
- A small amount of blood is present in the stool
- A small amount of bleed in the semen
- Anal pain or scrotal pain:
- Mild aching caused by irritation of the prostate
Side effects are mild, and resolve completely within 2 weeks.
Cancer of the Prostate Psa Level
The prostate specific antigen or PSA test is an important test to detect prostate cancer, as well as monitor the progress of prostate cancer treatment.
The prostate specific antigen blood test measures a protein that is made by the prostate gland. PSA is increased in males who have prostate cancer.
A normal PSA level is lower than 4 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml). About one-quarter of men with borderline PSA elevations (4.1 to 10.0 ng/ml) have prostate cancer. Almost two-thirds of those with PSA levels of 10 ng/ml, or higher, have prostate cancer. Very high PSA levels suggest the presence of advanced cancer.
PSA testing is recommended annually for all men over the age of 50. If you are under 50 years old, your doctor can decide whether you require PSA testing.
Additional testing for prostate cancer may be required in the following situations:
Cancer of the Prostate Staging
Cancer of the Prostate Stage 1
Stage T1 Prostate Cancer Features:
Cancer of the Prostate Stage 2
Stage T2 Prostate Cancer Features:
- In stage T2, the prostate cancer is confined to the prostate.
- It is large enough to be detectable by physical exam or ultrasound.
Cancer of the Prostate Stage 3
Stage T3 Prostate Cancer Features:
Cancer of the Prostate Stage 4
Cancer of the Prostate Stage M
Stage M Prostate Cancer Features:
- Stage M determines whether the cancer has spread, or metastasized, to distant areas of the body.
- It has groups of M0 through M1c, depending on the degree of spread:
- M0: no distant spread
- M1: distant metastases (area not specified)
- M1a: metastases to distant lymph nodes
- M1b: metastases to bones
- M1c: metastases to other organs
Cancer of the Prostate Stage N
Stage N Prostate Cancer Features:
- Stage N describes spread to the lymph nodes that are near the prostate.
- It has groups of N0 through N3, depending on the degree of spread:
- N0: no local lymph node involvement
- N1: single node involved, less than 2 cm in size
- N2: one or more nodes up to 5 cm in size
- N3: larger than 5 cm in any node
Continue to Cancer of the Prostate Treatment
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