Cancer of the Breast in Males Anatomy
To better understand breast cancer in males, it helps to understand the anatomy of the breast.
Breasts are made of fat and milk glands. Small passageways, called ducts, deliver milk from the glands, to the nipple. Lymphatic tissue provides a passageway for cell waste to drain from the breast.
Males usually have very small amounts of breast tissue. Breast tissue requires the hormone estrogen to grow and function. Since most men have little estrogen in their bodies, breast tissue remains inactive. Rarely, the ducts and other breast cells present in males can become cancerous.
- Appelbaum AH, Evans GF, Levy KR, et al: Mammographic appearances of male breast disease. Radiographics 1999 May-Jun; 19(3): 559-68 . 
- Carmalt HL, Mann LJ, Kennedy CW, et al: Carcinoma of the male breast: a review and recommendations for management. Aust N Z J Surg 1998 Oct; 68(10): 712-5 
- Dehner LP, Hill DA, Deschryver K: Pathology of the breast in children, adolescents, and young adults. Semin Diagn Pathol 1999 Aug; 16(3): 235-47. 
- Giordano SH, Perkins GH, Broglio K, Garcia SG, Middleton LP, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN. Adjuvant systemic therapy for male breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2005 Dec 1;104(11):2359-64. 
- Greydanus DE, Parks DS, Farrell EG: Breast disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am 1989 Jun; 36(3): 601-38. 
- Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Cocco P, Co Chien HT, Fraumeni JF Jr. Risk factors for male breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1998 May;9(3):269-75. 
- Pacinda SJ, Ramzy I. Fine-needle aspiration of breast masses. A review of its role in diagnosis and management in adolescent patients. J Adolesc Health. 1998 Jul;23(1):3-6. 
- Stewart RA, Howlett DC, Hearn FJ: Pictorial review: the imaging features of male breast disease. Clin Radiol 1997 Oct; 52(10): 739-44.