Cancer Cervical PAP Smear
The PAP smear is a simple, painless test, where the examiner brushes off the surface of the cervix with a wooden spatula. The PAP smear is performed during a pelvic examination. The sample cells that are collected during the process are evaluated for the presence of cancer. The PAP test is very sensitive and can show early or pre-cancerous changes referred to as cervical dysplasia.
Continue to Cancer Cervical Staging
- Eddy DM: Screening for cervical cancer. Ann Intern Med 1990 Aug 1; 113(3): 214-26. 
- Ellenson LH, Wu TC. Focus on endometrial and cervical cancer. Cancer Cell. 2004 Jun;5(6):533-8. 
- Schiffman MH, Bauer HM, Hoover RN: Epidemiologic evidence showing that human papillomavirus infection causes most cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993 Jun 16; 85(12): 958-64. 
- Sundar S, Horne A, Kehoe S. Cervical cancer. Clin Evid. 2005 Jun;(13):2285-92. 
- Waxman AG. Guidelines for cervical cancer screening: history and scientific rationale. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Mar;48(1):77-97.