Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Symptoms

Symptoms of bronchopulmonary dysplasia include:

Abnormal Breathing Rates
AgeUpper NormalAbnormal
6mo - 1 year40 breaths per min60 breaths per min
1 - 3 years30 breaths per min50 breaths per min
4 - 5 years28 breaths per min45 breaths per min
5 - 6 years26 breaths per min40 breaths per min
6 - 12 years24 breaths per min30 breaths per min
Over 12 years20 breaths per min25+ breaths per min

Symptoms of worsening bronchopulmonary dysplasia include:
  • Severe difficulty breathing:
    • Grunting sounds while breathing
    • The chest and abdomen may move in opposite directions with every breath
    • Rib retractions: ribs are visible during each breath
    • Nasal flaring: nostrils open wide during each breath
    • Use of accessory muscles: neck muscles are prominent during each breath
  • Rapid breathing rate

Additional symptoms of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants include:

Continue to Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Evaluation

Last Updated: Oct 26, 2010 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia References
  1. Grier DG, Halliday HL. Management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants: guidelines for corticosteroid use. Drugs. 2005;65(1):15-29. [15610049]
  2. Northway WH Jr: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: twenty-five years later. Pediatrics 1992 May; 89(5 Pt 1): 969-73. [1579413]
  3. Pierce MR, Bancalari E: The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol 1995 Jun; 19(6): 371-8. [7567218]
  4. Van Marter LJ. Strategies for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2005 Apr;17(2):174-80. [15800407]
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