Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

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Breathing Difficulty Evaluation

The evaluation of someone with breathing difficulty begins with a history and physical examination.

Physical findings in someone with breathing difficulty may include:


Tests are often necessary to determine the underlying cause for the breathing difficulty.

Tests that may be used to evaluate breathing difficulty include:

Continue to Breathing Difficulty Treatment

Last Updated: Dec 2, 2010 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Breathing Difficulty References
  1. Dosh SA. Diagnosis of heart failure in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Dec 1;70(11):2145-52. [1560606]
  2. Evans SE, Scanlon PD. Current practice in pulmonary function testing. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Jun;78(6):758-63. [12934788]
  3. Fedullo PF, Tapson VF. Clinical practice. The evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25;349(13):1247-56. [14507950]
  4. Karnani NG, Reisfield GM, Wilson GR. Evaluation of chronic dyspnea. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Apr 15;71(8):1529-37. [15864893]
  5. Lee-Chiong T Jr, Matthay RA. Drug-induced pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Chest Med. 2004 Mar;25(1):95-104. [1506260]
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