Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

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Breath Holding Spell Underlying Cause

A breath-holding spell seems to be an emotional response to anger, frustration, injury or fear. Breath-holding spells that do not result in loss of consciousness are so common, that they are considered normal.

Last Updated: Feb 29, 2008 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Breath Holding Spell References
  1. Kelly AM, Porter CJ, McGoon MD, Espinosa RE, Osborn MJ, Hayes DL. Breath-holding spells associated with significant bradycardia: successful treatment with permanent pacemaker implantation. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep;108(3):698-702. [11533339]
  2. Okada K, Miyako M, Honma S, Wakabayashi Y, Sugihara S, Osawa M. Discharge diagnoses in infants with apparent life-threatening event. Pediatr Int. 2003 Oct;45(5):560-3. [14521532]
  3. Peterson AL, Campise RL, Azrin NH: Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for tic and habit disorders: a review. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1994 Dec; 15(6): 430-41. [7884015]
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