Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

Overview Symptoms Evaluation Treatment Home Care warning signs Outlook Complications Underlying Cause

Breath Holding Spell Warning Signs

Notify your doctor if you have a breath-holding spell and any of the following:

Continue to Breath Holding Spell Outlook

Last Updated: Dec 2, 2010 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Breath Holding Spell References
  1. Kelly AM, Porter CJ, McGoon MD, Espinosa RE, Osborn MJ, Hayes DL. Breath-holding spells associated with significant bradycardia: successful treatment with permanent pacemaker implantation. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep;108(3):698-702. [11533339]
  2. Okada K, Miyako M, Honma S, Wakabayashi Y, Sugihara S, Osawa M. Discharge diagnoses in infants with apparent life-threatening event. Pediatr Int. 2003 Oct;45(5):560-3. [14521532]
  3. Peterson AL, Campise RL, Azrin NH: Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for tic and habit disorders: a review. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1994 Dec; 15(6): 430-41. [7884015]
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