Overview Incidence Risk Factors Symptoms Evaluation Treatment questions for doctor specialist Home Care taking control warning signs wheezing Prevention Outlook Underlying Cause Anatomy
- Infant requires oxygen from a ventilator for at least three days during the first two weeks of life.
- Breathing problems beyond 28 days of age.
- The need for supplemental oxygen at 28 days of age.
Physical findings in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia may include:
- Low blood oxygen levels
- Rapid respiratory rate
- Signs of severe difficulty breathing
The diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia is usually confirmed by testing.
Tests that may be used to evaluate bronchopulmonary dysplasia include:
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PubMed BPD References
- Grier DG, Halliday HL. Management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants: guidelines for corticosteroid use. Drugs. 2005;65(1):15-29. 
- Northway WH Jr: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: twenty-five years later. Pediatrics 1992 May; 89(5 Pt 1): 969-73. 
- Pierce MR, Bancalari E: The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol 1995 Jun; 19(6): 371-8. 
- Van Marter LJ. Strategies for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2005 Apr;17(2):174-80.