Bleeding from the Vagina after Menopause Evaluation
The evaluation of postmenopausal bleeding begins with a history and physical exam, including a pelvic exam.
The physical exam in a woman with postmenopausal bleeding is usually normal.
Physical findings in a woman with postmenopausal bleeding may include:
- Vaginal bleeding
- Bleeding from the cervix
- Vaginal discharge
- Mucus draining from the cervix
- Enlarged uterus
- Enlarged ovary
Tests that may be used to evaluate postmenopausal bleeding include:
- Abouzeid H, Reginald PW. Postmenopausal bleeding on hormone replacement therapy: review of the current referral guidelines. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004 Nov;24(8):920-1. 
- Epstein E, Valentin L. Managing women with post-menopausal bleeding. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2004 Feb;18(1):125-43. 
- Wagman H. Post-menopausal bleeding. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 1988 Jun;2(2):355-62. 
- White CD. Post menopausal bleeding as a risk factor for endometrial carcinoma. W V Med J. 1991 Jan;87(1):15-7.