Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

Bladder Cancer Evaluation

The evaluation of bladder cancer begins with a medical history and physical examination.

The physical examination is usually normal in someone with bladder cancer.

Tests are required to make the diagnosis of bladder cancer.

Tests that may be used to evaluate bladder cancer include:

Bladder Cancer Staging

If the biopsy shows that the patient has bladder cancer, additional tests are done to determine if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. The process of determining the extent of cancer spread is known as staging the disease. Staging is important because it a major factor in determining the most effective course of treatment.

Tumor stage is confined to one of two categories:

  • Superficial tumors on the surface of the bladder
  • Tumors that have spread outside the bladder

Continue to Bladder Cancer Treatment

Last Updated: Dec 2, 2010 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Bladder Cancer References
  1. Johansson SL, Cohen SM: Epidemiology and etiology of bladder cancer. Semin Surg Oncol 1997 Sep-Oct; 13(5): 291-8. [9259084]
  2. Montironi R, Lopez-Beltran A. The 2004 WHO classification of bladder tumors: a summary and commentary. Int J Surg Pathol. 2005 Apr;13(2):143-53. [15864376]
  3. Rosenberg JE, Carroll PR, Small EJ. Update on chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer. J Urol. 2005 Jul;174(1):14-20. [15947569]
  4. Warde P, Gospodarowicz MK: New approaches in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of infiltrative transitional-cell cancer of the bladder. World J Urol 1997; 15(2): 125-33. [9144903]
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