Bladder Cancer Anatomy
To better understand bladder cancer, it helps to understand the anatomy of the bladder.
Urine flows from the kidneys, through the ureters, and into the bladder. The bladder holds 10 to 20 ounces (300 to 600 ml) of urine. As the bladder fills, the bladder wall stretches. This sensation results in the urge to urinate. The act of urination causes the bladder to empty into the urethra. Urine flows through the urethra and exits the body.
Anatomy of the bladder:
- Johansson SL, Cohen SM: Epidemiology and etiology of bladder cancer. Semin Surg Oncol 1997 Sep-Oct; 13(5): 291-8. 
- Montironi R, Lopez-Beltran A. The 2004 WHO classification of bladder tumors: a summary and commentary. Int J Surg Pathol. 2005 Apr;13(2):143-53. 
- Rosenberg JE, Carroll PR, Small EJ. Update on chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer. J Urol. 2005 Jul;174(1):14-20. 
- Warde P, Gospodarowicz MK: New approaches in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of infiltrative transitional-cell cancer of the bladder. World J Urol 1997; 15(2): 125-33.