Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

Arbovirus Infection Underlying Cause

Facts about arbovirus infection:

  • The term Arbovirus means an arthropod-borne virus. Arthropods are insects.
  • These viruses are transferred from person to person by blood-sucking insects, such as mosquitoes and ticks.
  • There are more than 250 types of arboviruses, and more than 80 that cause disease in humans.

Arbovirus Infection Encephalitis

The western equine encephalitis virus is an Arbovirus that occurs throughout the US. For an unknown reason, a high proportion of infections occur in children less than 1 year old. Eastern equine encephalitis occurs in the eastern US, mainly in young children and people over 55 years of age. Eastern equine encephalitis has a higher mortality rate than the western variety.

Arbovirus Infection Flavivirus

Flaviviruses are one type of arbovirus. The most well-known member of the group is the West Nile virus. West Nile was first reported in the US in 1999, where an outbreak resulted in several deaths. During the summer of 1999, 7 out of the 60 infected people died from this virus.

Arbovirus Infection Hemorrhagic

Arbovirus Infection Orbivirus

Orbiviruses are a type of arbovirus. There is one type of Orbivirus that causes disease in the US: Colorado tick fever.

Arbovirus Infection Types

Types of arboviruses and the insect that transmits the infection include:

ConditionTransmitted By
California Group VirusMosquito
Chikungunya DiseaseMosquito
Colorado Tick FeverTick
Congo Hemorrhagic FeverTick
Dengue FeverMosquito
Eastern Equine EncephalitisMosquito
Japanese EncephalitisMosquito
Phlebotomus FeverSandfly
Rift Valley FeverMosquito
St Louis EncephalitisMosquito
Venezuelan Equine EncephalitisMosquito
West Nile VirusMosquito
Western Equine EncephalitisMosquito
Yellow FeverMosquito

Continue to Arbovirus Infection Transmission

Last Updated: Mar 13, 2008 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Arbovirus Infection References
  1. Calisher CH. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116. [8118792]
  2. Drosten C, Gottig S, Schilling S, Asper M, Panning M, Schmitz H, Gunther S. Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jul;40(7):2323-30. [12089242]
  3. Dumpis U, Crook D, Oksi J. Tick-borne encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Apr;28(4):882-90. [10825054]
  4. Isturiz RE, Gubler DJ, Brea del Castillo J. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Latin America and the Caribbean. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Mar;14(1):121-40, ix. [10738676]
  5. Whitley RJ, Gnann JW. Viral encephalitis: familiar infections and emerging pathogens. Lancet. 2002 Feb 9;359(9305):507-13. [11853816]
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