Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Evaluation
The evaluation of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome begins with a medical history and physical examination.
Physical findings in someone with a deep venous thrombosis may include:
- Leg swelling (unilateral)
- Calf tenderness
- Thigh tenderness
Tests are usually done to confirm the diagnosis of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.
Tests that may be used to evaluate antiphospholipid antibody syndrome include:
Some tests may be required to evaluate possible blood clots in the limbs:
- D-dimer assay:
- A blood protein that is elevated in people with deep venous thrombosis.
- Duplex ultrasound:
- MRI scanning of the pelvis:
- Can accurately detect clots within the renal veins and pelvis
- Other methods for imaging clots include:
- Impedance plethysmography
- Radiolabeled fibrinogen (nuclear scan)
Continue to Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Treatment
- Garcia DA, Khamashta MA, Crowther MA. How we diagnose and treat thrombotic manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome: a case-based review. Blood. 2007 Nov 1;110(9):3122-7. Epub 2007 Jul 20. 
- Musuruana JL, Cavallasca JA. Polyarteritis nodosa complicated by antiphospholipid syndrome. South Med J. 2008 Apr;101(4):419-21. 
- Uthman I, Khamashta M. The abdominal manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Nov;46(11):1641-7. Epub 2007 Jul 17.