Stephen J. Schueler, M.D.

Anal Carcinoma Evaluation

The evaluation of anal cancer begins with a history and physical exam.

Physical findings in anal cancer include:

  • Tumor in the rectum

The diagnosis of anal cancer requires testing.

Tests for anal cancer may include:

Imaging studies for anal cancer may include:

Anal Carcinoma Stages

Anal cancer stages include:

  • Stage 0: cancer is only found in the top layer of anal tissue
  • Stage I: cancer has spread beyond the top layer of anal tissue, but has not spread to the muscle that makes up the rectal sphincter. The tumor is smaller than 2 centimeters (1 inch) in diameter.
  • Stage II: cancer has spread beyond the top layer of anal tissue, but has not spread to nearby organs. The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters in diameter.
  • Stage IIIa: cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the anus or nearby organs, such as the vagina or bladder.
  • Stage IV: cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes within the abdomen or to organs in other parts of the body.
  • Recurrent anal cancer: cancer starts to grow again, after it has been treated.

Continue to Anal Carcinoma Treatment

Last Updated: Nov 22, 2010 References
Authors: Stephen J. Schueler, MD; John H. Beckett, MD; D. Scott Gettings, MD
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PubMed Anal Carcinoma References
  1. Clark MA, Hartley A, Geh JI. Cancer of the anal canal. Lancet Oncol. 2004 Mar;5(3):149-57. [15003197]
  2. Sato H, Koh PK, Bartolo DC. Management of anal canal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Jun;48(6):1301-15. [15793642]
  3. Welton ML, Sharkey FE, Kahlenberg MS. The etiology and epidemiology of anal cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2004 Apr;13(2):263-75. [15137956]
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