Anal Cancer Stages
Anal cancer stages include:
- Stage 0: cancer is only found in the top layer of anal tissue
- Stage I: cancer has spread beyond the top layer of anal tissue, but has not spread to the muscle that makes up the rectal sphincter. The tumor is smaller than 2 centimeters (1 inch) in diameter.
- Stage II: cancer has spread beyond the top layer of anal tissue, but has not spread to nearby organs. The tumor is larger than 2 centimeters in diameter.
- Stage IIIa: cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the anus or nearby organs, such as the vagina or bladder.
- Stage IV: cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes within the abdomen or to organs in other parts of the body.
- Recurrent anal cancer: cancer starts to grow again, after it has been treated.
Continue to Anal Cancer Treatment
- Clark MA, Hartley A, Geh JI. Cancer of the anal canal. Lancet Oncol. 2004 Mar;5(3):149-57. 
- Sato H, Koh PK, Bartolo DC. Management of anal canal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Jun;48(6):1301-15. 
- Welton ML, Sharkey FE, Kahlenberg MS. The etiology and epidemiology of anal cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2004 Apr;13(2):263-75.