People who are infected with HIV can transmit the virus to others, even if they do not have AIDS. The virus is contained in blood, semen, saliva and tears. The virus is not present in the urine. Women, who have HIV, have the virus in vaginal fluid. Pregnant women have HIV in their breast milk.
HIV is not transmitted by touching a person who has HIV, or by living with a person who has HIV. To become infected with HIV, the virus must enter the bloodstream.
The virus enters the bloodstream in the following ways:
- Accidental sticks from a needle used by someone who has HIV
- Anal intercourse
- Vaginal intercourse
- From mother to baby during birth
- From mother to baby during breast-feeding
- Oral sex
- Sharing needles
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