To better understand adenomyosis, it helps to understand the anatomy of the uterus.
The cervix is a short tube that forms the opening and lower part of the uterus. The cervix lies in the top portion of the vagina. Sperm enter through the cervix to combine with an egg in the uterus. A newborn is delivered through the cervix and vagina from the inside of the uterus.
- Devlieger R, D'Hooghe T, Timmerman D. Uterine adenomyosis in the infertility clinic. Hum Reprod Update. 2003 Mar-Apr;9(2):139-47. 
- Elsheikh A, Milingos S, Loutradis D, Kallipolitis G, Michalas S. Endometriosis and reproductive disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov;997:247-54. 
- Matalliotakis IM, Kourtis AI, Panidis DK. Adenomyosis. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2003 Mar;30(1):63-82, viii.